The New Zealand Patents (Trans-Tasman Patent Attorneys and Other Matters) (TTPA) Amendment Bill passed into law on 15 November 2016, and is expected to commence on 24 February 2017.
The amendments in the Bill:
- Remove ‘unity of invention’ as a ground to oppose a patent being granted, which will apply retrospectively from 13 September 2014 (the date of commencement of New Zealand’s Patents Act 2013);
- Establish a single trans-Tasman patent attorney regime including a single qualification for registration and code of conduct; and
- Create a single trans-Tasman patent attorney register.
It appears unity of invention as a ground for opposition was unintentionally introduced in New Zealand’s Patents Act 2013, as it was not present in the Patents Act 1953, and nor was there any policy intention to introduce lack of unity as a ground of opposition. By removing unity of invention as a ground for opposition, the TTPA Amendment Bill brings the grounds for opposing patent grant in New Zealand back in line with Australia and other jurisdictions.
The TTPA Amendment Bill also provides for a joint registration regime for Australian and New Zealand patent attorneys. Australian patent attorneys were previously able to register as New Zealand patent attorneys and vice versa; however, the TTPA Amendment Bill legislates that patent attorneys resident in New Zealand are subject to a new joint registration regime, which is based on the existing Australian registration regime. Existing registered Australian and New Zealand patent attorneys will automatically be registered as Trans-Tasman patent attorneys, and transitional provisions exist for those currently studying to become a New Zealand patent attorney. However, future patent attorneys resident in New Zealand (whom do not satisfy the transitional provisions) will be required to have the same educational qualifications as Australian patent attorneys. Additionally, all New Zealand patent attorneys will be held to the same code of conduct, disciplinary regime and continuing professional education requirements as existing Australian patent attorneys. Corresponding amendments to the Australian Patents Act 1990 relating to a single trans-Tasman patent attorney regime have already been passed and are due to commence before 25 February 2017.
Of note, the TTPA Amendment Bill was initially intended to also introduce legislation for a single Trans-Tasman patent application and examination process; however, these provisions were deleted from the Bill, and are not expected to be re-visited in the foreseeable future.
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The New Zealand Patents Act 2013 will shortly replace the out-dated Patents Act 1953, and will raise the thresholds for a valid New Zealand patent.
Additionally, the new Act will substantially align New Zealand and Australian patent law, which will eventually assist the expected introduction of a single Trans-Tasman patent application and examination system.
Synopsis of New Zealand’s New Patents Act
The major changes introduced by the New Act include:
- Replacement of local novelty with absolute novelty;
- Replacement of “prior claiming” assessment with “whole-of-contents” assessment for prior art patent documents filed before but published after the filing date of the application of interest;
- Expansion of examination grounds to include inventive step and utility;
- Strengthening of support requirements for a complete specification;
- More stringent requirements for claims;
- Introduction of specific patentability exclusions;
- Expansion of options for third party challenges;
- Expansion of infringement and infringement exemption provisions;
- Strengthening of the patentability standard to the “balance of probabilities”; and
- Introduction of additional formality requirements.
The Patents Act 2013 will be applied to all patent applications filed or entering New Zealand on or after 13 September 2014, even if a corresponding basic (provisional) or Patent Treaty Co-operation (PCT) application was filed before the commencement date.
Where possible, we would recommend patent applicants take advantage of the more lenient provisions of the 1953 Act by filing new applications in New Zealand before 13 September 2014
New Zealand’s Patents Act 2013
The New Zealand Patents Act 2013 replaces the out-dated Patents Act 1953, and will raise the thresholds for a valid New Zealand patent. Additionally, it substantially aligns New Zealand patent law and Australian patent law, following the recent introduction of the Australian “Raising the Bar” reforms. The similarity between the Australian and New Zealand Acts will eventually assist the expected introduction of a single Trans-Tasman patent system.
The Patents Act 2013 is due to come into full effect on 13 September 2014. It will be applied to all patent applications filed or entering New Zealand on or after 13 September 2014, even if a corresponding basic (provisional) or Patent Treaty Co-operation (PCT) application was filed before the commencement date. New divisional applications with a parent application filed before the commencement date, however, can be antedated to proceed under the 1953 Act.
Where possible, we would recommend patent applicants take advantage of the more lenient provisions of the 1953 Act by filing new applications in New Zealand before 13 September 2014.
Major Changes Introduced by the New Act
Absolute novelty replaces local novelty, expanding the prior art base to include matter available to the public anywhere in the world. Additionally, “whole-of-contents” novelty replaces “prior claiming”, meaning that when a prior art patent document is filed before but published after the priority date of the application of interest, any information in the prior art document can be used to assess for novelty, rather than only the information in the claims.
Patent applications will now be examined for inventive step, which is expected to raise the standard of granted patents.
Utility will also be a new ground for examination: an invention must have a specific, credible and substantial use.
The support requirements for a complete specification have been strengthened. Specifications must now include disclosure of a best method and the description of the invention must be “clear enough and complete enough” to allow the invention to be performed by a person skilled in the art, which is likely to narrow the scope of granted claims.
Under the new Act, the claims must to be “clear and concise” and “supported by the matter disclosed in the specification”.
The new Act formalises that an invention is not patentable if the subject matter is:
- Contrary to public order or morality, including commercial exploitation of processes for cloning or modifying the genetic identity of human beings, the use of human embryos, modifying genetic identity of animals that is likely to cause suffering without substantial benefit;
- Human beings and biological processes for their generation;
- A method of treatment of human beings by surgery or therapy;
- A method of diagnosis practised on human beings;
- A plant variety; and
- A computer program as such.
Post-acceptance amendments to the specification will now be allowed providing the amendments do not introduce matter that was not in substance disclosed in the specification before the amendment, and that amended claims wholly fall within the scope of the claims before the amendment.
The new Act will introduce re-examination provisions. Any person will be able to request re-examination of an accepted patent application or of a granted patent, and re-examination of a patent can be ordered by the courts. All grounds of opposition are available for pre-grant re-examination, and all grounds for revocation are available for post-grant re-examination.
Pre-grant opposition grounds have been expanded to include prior secret use.
It will be possible to commence revocation proceedings through the Intellectual Property Office of New Zealand at any time, whereas under the 1953 Act, revocation proceedings commenced after 12 months from grant of the patent must be conducted through the courts.
Infringement & Infringement Exemptions
The infringement provisions have been expanded to include contributory infringement. Exemptions to infringement now comprise acts for experimental use, seeking regulatory approval and prior use.
Restoration will be possible under particular conditions.
The priority date of a claim is the date of filing of the earliest accompanying application (eg a provisional application) that provides support for the claim in the matter disclosed.
The new Act essentially retains the prior grace period provisions, with disclosure of the invention in the one-year period prior to filing of the application disregarded as prior art under particular circumstances, such as unauthorised disclosure, or reasonable trial of the invention; and a 6-month grace period for disclosure of the invention at prescribed exhibitions has been maintained.
Maintenance Fees for pending applications will be payable from the fourth anniversary of the filing date of the complete specification (or PCT filing date), and for granted patents, renewal fees are payable on the anniversary of the same date.
The previous “benefit of the doubt” standard has now been replaced with a “balance of probabilities” standard.
Māori Advisory Committee
A Māori advisory committee will advise whether the invention is derived from Māori traditional knowledge or indigenous plants or animals; and whether the commercial exploitation of that invention is likely to be contrary to Māori values.
No Pharmaceutical Term Extension
The new Act does not include provisions for extending the term of a patent.
The new Act provides that complete specifications will automatically be published 18 months from the earliest priority date; and that a Notice of Entitlement must be filed before the application can be accepted. Additionally, it will be necessary to formally request Examination, which may occur either voluntarily or following direction from the Commissioner. The application must now be accepted by the 12 months from the date of the first examination report.
Patents Regulations 2014
The New Zealand Patents Regulations 2014 became publicly available on 15 August 2014.
Due date for Divisional Applications
Notably, the Regulations provide that examination must be requested in connection with any divisional application filed under the new Act within the period of five years from the antedated date of filing of the divisional application. Accordingly, for a divisional application derived from a parent application that is filed under the new Act, the divisional application must be filed and examination must be requested by five years from the date of filing of the parent application (ie, the International filing date for applications derived from PCT applications).
If required, please contact one of our attorneys to discuss your situation.
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